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Consulting Services, Expertise, Publications

Eutrophication / Excessive Algae / Nutrients (N & P)
Impacts, Sources, Evaluation, Management
Nutrient Water Quality Standards/Objectives

Due to webhosting changes, some links shown within some reports and papers listed below may no longer be active. You may email Dr. Lee at gfredlee33@gmail.com to obtain the current link.

Our Experience in Algae and Nutrient Evaluation & Management

Summary of Key Issues Eutrophication (Algae), Nutrients
Water Quality, Monitoring & Regulation

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Dr. Lee's Related Publications:
Downloadable copies of publications are available in these areas:

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Nutrients & Nutrient Criteria

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Lee, G. F., “G. Fred Lee’s Expertise and Experience in Investigating & Managing Excessive Fertilization in Waterbodies and Developing Nutrient Criteria,” Submitted to SWRCB Nutrient Objectives Stakeholder Advisory Group (SAG), Sacramento, CA by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (2014).[35 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on ‘California Environmental Quality Act Scoping Meeting, Statewide Policy for Nutrient Control in Inland Surface Waters in California,’” Comments submitted to SWRCB, Sacramento, CA by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, November 9 (2011). [67 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on Water Environment & Technology Article, ‘Algae Wars: Is Dual Nutrient Control Necessary?’” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, July (2011). [75 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on ‘Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 131 [EPA-HQ-OW-2009-0596; FRL-XXXX-X] [RIN 2040-AF11] Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida’s Lakes and Flowing Waters,’” Submitted to US EPA Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OW-2009-0596, by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, April 7 (2010). [413 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Unreliability of US EPA-Proposed Florida Numeric Nutrient Criteria/Standards,” PowerPoint slides of Invited Presentation at Meeting of Association of American Plant Food Control Officials, Portland, Oregon, August 3 (2010). [859 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Discussion of Issues: Regulation of aquatic plant nutrients (N & P); US EPA Science Advisory Board’s review of US EPA’s proposed statistics-based national nutrient criteria; US EPA’s proposed approach for developing nutrient criteria for Florida’s waterbodies; P-based TMDL being developed for lake in MN; National Research Council review of the nutrient control program for Chesapeake Bay; update on the anoxia situation in the Gulf of Mexico.” IN: “Stormwater Runoff Water Quality Newsletter” 13(3). Newsletter Published by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA. April 28 (2010). [82 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on ‘Lake Shaokatan Phosphorus Total Maximum Daily Load Report’ Prepared for the Yellow Medicine River Watershed District 2009, by David J. Schuler, Schuler Environmental Engineering, dated 12/02/2009,” Comments prepared for and submitted to Minnesota Agricultural Water Resources Coalition, by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, March 7 (2010). [111 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Review of the Characteristics of Lake Shaokatan, MN,” Report submitted to Minnesota Agricultural Water Resources Coalition, by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, March 7 (2010). [12,092 kb]

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US EPA SAB, “SAB Ecological Processes and Effects Committee 12/3/09 Draft Review of Empirical Approaches for Nutrient Criteria Derivation - Key Findings,” US EPA, Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology, Science Advisory Board Review, December 3 (2009). [27 kb]

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Hall, J. C., Letter to T. Armitage, US EPA, Washington, D.C. “Re: Comments on SAB Ecological Processes and Effects Committee Draft Report,” Hall & Associates, Washington, D. C., December 2 (2009). [196 kb]

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Jones-Lee, A., and Lee, G. F., “Information Needed to Apply the Vollenweider–OECD Eutrophication Modeling Approach to Nutrient-Related Water Quality Evaluation in Domestic Water Supply Waterbodies,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, March 16 (2009). [243 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “G. Fred Lee Experience in Fate & Water Quality Impacts of Ammonia,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, March 16 (2009). [75 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Application of Vollenweider OECD Modeling: Limiting Nutrient Issues,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, February (2009). [17 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on ‘US EPA “Empirical Approaches for Nutrient Criteria Derivation” Prepared by US EPA, Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology, Science Advisory Board Review, Draft August 17, 2009’,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, September 4 (2009). [20 kb]

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SWRCB, “Estuarine NNE (Nutrient Numeric Endpoint) Project - NNE STRTAG Meeting Conference Call August 17, 2009,” California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Coastal Nutrient Development Program Sacramento, CA, August 17 (2009). [3,394 kb]

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SWRCB, “Estuarine Nutrient Numeric Endpoint Coastal Stakeholder Advisory Group (Coastal SAG) Meeting May 1, 2009,” PowerPoint Slides, SWRCB, Sacramento, CA, May (2009). [1,088 kb]

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“Overview of Delta Nutrient Water Quality Problems: Nutrient Load – Water Quality Impact Modeling,” Agenda for Technical Workshop sponsored by California Water and Environmental Modeling Forum (CWEMF), Scheduled for March 25, 2008 in Sacramento, CA (2008). [67 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Synopsis of CWEMF Delta Nutrient Water Quality Modeling Workshop – March 25, 2008, Sacramento, CA,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, May 15 (2008). [455 kb]

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Hall, J., “Request for Peer Review of New EPA Region III Approach to Developing Instream Standards for Nutrients,” Letter with attachments to Stephen Johnson, Administrator, US EPA, Washington, DC, Submitted by Hall & Associates, Washington, DC, August 21 (2008). [2018 kb] Posted with Permission of Hall & Associates, Washington, D.C.

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on Establishing a Nutrient Runoff Water Quality Management Program,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, August 3 (2008). [15 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on US EPA’s Conditional Probability Approach for Developing Phosphorus Nutrient Criteria,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, September 26 (2008). [61 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Delta Nutrient-Related Water Quality Problems,” PowerPoint Slides Presented at CALFED Science Conference, Sacramento, CA, October 24 (2008). [312 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Delta Nutrient Water Quality Modeling Workshop — Background Information,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, September (2007). [41 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Role of Aquatic Plant Nutrients in Causing Sediment Oxygen Demand Part I – Origin of Rapid Sediment Oxygen Demand,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, May (2007). [108 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Role of Aquatic Plant Nutrients in Causing Sediment Oxygen Demand Part II – Sediment Oxygen Demand,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (2007). [235 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Role of Aquatic Plant Nutrients in Causing Sediment Oxygen Demand Part III – Sediment Toxicity,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (2007). [689 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Eutrophication, Detergent Phosphate” a summary of Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Detergent Phosphate Bans and Eutrophication,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 20(4): 330-331 (1986) (updated) IN: SCOPE Newsletter, No. 67, pp 5-6, February 2007 CEEP of Cefic Bruxelles - Belgium. (2007). [16 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “A Proposal for Assessing Algal-Available Phosphorus Loads in Runoff from Irrigated Agriculture in the Central Valley of California,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, November (2006). [98 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Assessing Algal Available Phosphorus,” Submitted for Inclusion in the Proceedings of US EPA Science Symposium: “Sources, Transport, and Fate of Nutrients in the Mississippi River and Atchafalaya River Basins,” Minneapolis, MN, November 7-9 (2006). [44 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Assessing the Water Quality Significance of N & P Compound Concentrations in Agricultural Runoff,” Invited Paper Presented at Agrochemical Division, American Chemical Society National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, September (2006). [44 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Assessing Water Quality Significance of N & P Compound Concentrations in Agricultural Runoff,” PowerPoint Slides for Invited Paper Presented at Agrochemical Division, American Chemical Society National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, September (2006). [708 kb]

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Jones-Lee, A., and Lee, G. F., “Eutrophication (Excessive Fertilization),” Water Encyclopedia: Surface and Agricultural Water, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ pp 107-114 (2005). [131 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Nutrient TMDLs and BMPs,” PowerPoint slide presentation to the UC Agricultural Extension farm advisors and researchers, Woodland, CA (2005). [335 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Interpretation of Nutrient Water Quality Data Associated with Irrigated Agricultural Ag Waiver Monitoring,” Submitted to Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board, Rancho Cordova, CA, by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, November (2005). [69 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Additional Information on Impact of Waterbody Fertilization on Fish Production,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, Published as “Water Body Fertilization: Impact on Fish Production,” SCOPE Newsletter 56:6-7, June (2004). [34 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Assessing the Water Quality Impacts of Phosphorus in Runoff from Agricultural Lands,” IN: Hall, W. L. and Robarge, W. P. (eds.), Environmental Impact of Fertilizer on Soil and Water, American Chemical Society Symposium Series 872, Oxford University Press, Cary, NC, pp. 207-219 (2004). [5,422 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Comments on Five Mile Slough Aquatic Weed Control Program CEQA Initial Study and Proposed Mitigated Negative Declaration, Prepared for the San Joaquin Area Flood Control Agency by Kleinschmidt Associates and the Huffman-Broadway Group, Inc., Dated May 2003,” Comments submitted to the DeltaKeeper by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (2003). [17 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Review of Management Practices for Controlling the Water Quality Impacts of Potential Pollutants in Irrigated Agriculture Stormwater Runoff and Tailwater Discharges,” California Water Institute Report TP 02-05 to California Water Resources Control Board/Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board, 128 pp, California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA, December (2002). [2,954 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Managing Nutrient (N & P) Water Quality Impacts in the Central Valley, CA,” [Excerpts from: Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Review of Management Practices for Controlling the Water Quality Impacts of Potential Pollutants in Irrigated Agriculture Stormwater Runoff and Tailwater Discharges,” California Water Institute Report TP 02-05 to California Water Resources Control Board/Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board, 128 pp, California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA, December (2002). Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (2002). [1,196 kb]

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Lee, G. F. “Evaluating Nitrogen and Phosphorus Control in Nutrient TMDLs,” Stormwater, 3:10-24, January/February (2002). [1,240 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Developing Nutrient Criteria/TMDLs to Manage Excessive Fertilization of Waterbodies,” Proceedings Water Environment Federation, TMDL 2002 Conference, Phoenix, AZ, November (2002). [ 2,000 kb]

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Jones-Lee A., and Lee, G.F., “Evaluation of Inorganic and Organic Nutrient Source Impacts in Nutrient TMDLs,” Proceedings of the AWWA/WEF/CWEA Joint Residuals and Biosolids Management Conference San Diego, CA, February (2001). [204 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Assessing the Water Quality Impacts of Phosphorus in Runoff from Agricultural Lands: Expanded Discussion,” Presented in part at American Chemical Society Agro Division Symposium, “Environmental Impact of Fertilizer Products in Soil, Air and Water,” Chicago, IL, August (2001). (Published in part in Symposium Proceedings Lee and Jones-Lee, 2004.) [964 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Proposed Regionalization of Nutrient Criteria Development within the Central Valley of California,” Submitted to the US EPA RTAG Nutrient Criteria Program, Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, August (2001). [28 kb]

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Lee, G.F., “Comments on April 12, 2001 Draft Findings and Recommendations for the EPA Region 9 Nutrient Criteria Developed by Tetra Tech,” letter to Suesan Saucerman, US EPA Region 9 RTAG, San Francisco, CA, April 15 (2001). [76 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Mechanisms of the Deoxygenation of the Hypolimnia of Lakes,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (1999). [115 kb]

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Lee, G.F., and Jones-Lee, A, “Strategy for Managing Waterbody Excessive Fertilization (Eutrophication) to Achieve TMDL Goals,” Presented at North American Lake Management Society National Annual Meeting Reno, NV, December (1999). [129 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on 'National Strategy for the Development of Regional Nutrient Criteria' Developed by the US EPA Office of Water, June 1998,” Comments submitted to US EPA, Washington, D.C., G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, August (1998). [1,135 kb]

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Lee, G.F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Determination of Nutrient Limiting Maximum Algal Biomass in Waterbodies,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (1998). [29 kb]

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Lee, G.F., “Comments on Upper Newport Bay Nutrient TMDLs,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, January (1998). [47 kb]

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Lee, G.F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Excessive Fertilization Water Quality Problems in the Sacramento River Watershed and Delta,” G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (1998). [16k]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Comment on 'Impact of a Phosphate Detergent Ban on Concentrations of Phosphorus in the James River, Virginia'.” Wat. Res. 29:1425-1426 (1995). [216 kb]

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Lee, G.F., “Water Quality Modeling Issues in the Delta & San Francisco Bay,” Presented at “Toxics and Water Quality Modeling Workshop,” Bay-Delta Forum, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, August 25, 1995. [1,243 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Jones-Lee, A. and Rast, W., “Alternative Approaches for Trophic State Classification for Water Quality Management, Parts I and II: (Suitability of Existing Trophic State Classification Systems and Application of Vollenweider-OECD Eutrophication Modeling Approach),” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (1995). [810 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Jones-Lee, A., and Rast, W., “Secchi Depth as a Water Quality Parameter,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, March (1995). [372 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Evaluation and Management of Non-Point Source Pollutants in the Lake Tahoe Watershed,” Proc. 1994 National Conference on Environmental Engineering, “Critical Issues in Water and Wastewater Treatment,” American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY, pp. 516-523, July (1994) [1,198 kb]

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Jones-Lee, A., and Lee, G. F., “The Relationship between Phosphorus Load and Eutrophication Response in Lake Vanda,” Phys. Biogeochem. Processes in Antarctic Lakes, Antarctic Research Series 59:197-214 (1993). [1,249 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Role of Vehicular Exhaust NOx and Lawn-Shrubbery Fertilizers as a Cause of Water Quality Deterioration in Lake Tahoe,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA., 15pp, May (1992). [1,176 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Study Program for Development of Information for Use of Vollenweider-OECD Eutrophication Modeling in Water Quality Management for Lakes and Reservoirs,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, 22pp (1992). [223 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones, A., “Effects of Eutrophication on Fisheries,” Reviews in Aquatic Sciences 5(3-4):287-305 (1991). [11,830 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Development of Lake Water Quality Management Programs,” Report & Presentation prepared for NJ Coalition of Lake Associations by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (1989). [23 kb]

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Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “Use of Vollenweider-OECD Modeling to Evaluate Aquatic Ecosystem Functioning,” Functional Testing of Aquatic Biota for Estimating Hazards of Chemicals, ASTM STP 988, Amer. Soc. Test. & Mat., Philadelphia, pp. 17-27 (1988). [1,130 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “The North American Experience in Eutrophication Control through Phosphorus Management,” In: Proc. Int. Conf. Phosphate, Water and Quality of Life, Paris, France (1988). [428 kb]

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Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “Eutrophication Modeling for Water Quality Management: An Update of the Vollenweider-OECD Model,” World Health Organization's Water Quality Bulletin 11:67-174, 118 (1986). [6,614 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Detergent Phosphate Bans and Eutrophication,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 20(4):330-331 (1986). [29 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Algae Control in Reservoirs,” Letter to the Editor of the Journ. of the American Water Works Association 77:4 (1985). [511 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones, R. A., “Development of a Phosphorus-Eutrophication Management Strategy for Vermont: Evaluating Available Phosphorus Loads,” Technical Report N-86/01, US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, Champaign, IL, November (1985). [3,986 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Summary of US OECD Eutrophication Study Results and their Application to Water Quality Management,” Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 22:261-267 (1984). [84 kb]

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Rast, W., and Lee, G. F., “Nutrient Loading Estimates for Lakes,” Journ. Environ. Engr. 109(2):502-518 (1983). [1,492 kb]

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Rast, W., Jones, A., and Lee, G. F., “Predictive Capability of US OECD Phosphorus Loading-Eutrophication Response Models,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 55(7):990-1003 (1983). [1,250 kb]

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Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “Development of Water Quality Management Program for the Rawhide Electric Generating Station Cooling Impoundment: A Domestic Wastewater Reuse Project,” IN: Water Reuse in the Future, Proc. AWWA, Symposium II, AWWA, Denver, CO, pp1945-1978 (1982). [16,230 kb]

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Jones, R. A., and Lee, G. F., “Recent Advances in Assessing the Impact of Phosphorus Loads on Eutrophication-Related Water Quality,” Journ. Water Research 16:503-515 (1982). [470 kb]

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Archibald, E. M. and Lee, G. F., “Application of the OECD Eutrophication Modeling Approach to Lake Ray Hubbard, Texas,” Journ. AWWA 73:590-599 (1981). [481 kb]

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Jones, R. A., and Lee, G. F., “Impact of Phosphorus Removal at the Danbury, Connecticut Sewage Treatment plant on Water Quality in Lake Lillinonah,” Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 16:511-531 (1981). [6,675 kb]

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Jones, R. A., and Lee, G. F., “The Significance of Dredging and Dredged Material Disposal as a Source of Nitrogen and Phosphorus for Estuarine Waters,” IN: Estuaries and Nutrients, Humana Press, Clifton, NJ, pp 517-530 (1981). [838 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Application of the OECD Eutrophication Modeling Approach to Estuaries.” In: Estuaries and Nutrients, Humana Press, Clifton, NJ, pp 549-568 (1981). [10,540 kb]

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Newbry, B. W., Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “Assessment and Analysis of Eutrophication of Tennessee River System Impoundments,” Proc. ISCHIA Symposium on Surface Water Impoundments ISCHIA, NY, pp 413-424 (1981). [2,283 kb]

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Ortiz, J. L., Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Development of Basis for Establishing Eutrophication Management Program for Spanish Impoundments,” Proc. ISCHIA Symposium on Surface Water Impoundments, ISCHIA, NY, pp 435-446 (1981). [795 kb]

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Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “An Approach for the Evaluation of Efficacy of Wetlands-Based Phosphorus Control Programs for Eutrophication-Related Water Quality Improvement in Downstream Waterbodies,” Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 14:359-378 (1980). [5,851 kb]

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Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “Application of US OECD Eutrophication Study Results to Deep Lakes,” Proc. Conf. Eutrophication of Deep Lakes, Progress in Water Technology 12:81-88 (1980). [1,944 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Jones, R. A. and Rast, W., “Availability of Phosphorus to Phytoplankton and its Implications for Phosphorus Management Strategies,” IN: Phosphorus Management Strategies for Lakes, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (1980). [259 kb]

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Anderson, D. W. and Lee, G. F., “The Effect of Taconite Tailings on Primary Productivity in the Silver Bay Area of Western Lake Superior,” Environmental International (Pergamon Press) 2:13-17 (1979). [58 kb]

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Jones-Lee, A., and Lee, G. F., “Septic Tank Wastewater Disposal Systems as Phosphorus Sources for Surface Waters,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 51(11):2764-2775 (1979). [6,533 kb]

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Cowen, W. F., Sirisinha, K. and Lee, G. F., “Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Lake Ontario Tributary Waters,” Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 10:343-350 (1978). [5,017 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Rast, W. and Jones, R. A., “Eutrophication of Water Bodies: Insights for an Age-Old Problem,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 12:900-908 (1978). [2,011 kb]

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Rast, W., and Lee, G. F., “Summary Analysis of the North American (US Portion) OECD Eutrophication Project: Nutrient Loading--Lake Response Relationships and Trophic State Indices,” EPA 600/3-78-008, US EPA Corvallis, OR (1978). [16,985 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Sonzogni, W., and Spear, R., “Significance of Oxic vs Anoxic Conditions for Lake Mendota Sediment Phosphorus Release,” Proc. UNESCO-SIL International Symposium on Interactions between Sediments and Fresh Water, Amsterdam, 1976, W. Junk, Purdoc, The Hague, pp. 294-306 (1977). [856 kb]

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Sridharan, N. and Lee, G. F., “Algal Nutrient Limitation in Lake Ontario and Tributary Water,” Water Res. 11:849-858 (1977). [3,119 kb]

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Cowen, W. F., and Lee, G. F., “Phosphorus Availability in Particulate Materials Transported by Urban Runoff,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 48(3):580-591 (1976). [1,958 kb]

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Cowen, W. F., Sirisinha, K., and Lee, G. F., “Nitrogen Availability in Urban Runoff,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 48(2):339-345 (1976). [369 kb]

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Sonzogni, W. C., Uttormark, P. C., and Lee, G. F., “A Phosphorus Residence Time Model: Theory and Application,” Journ. Water Res. 10:429-435 (1976). [387 kb]

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Torrey, M., and Lee, G. F., “Nitrogen Fixation in Lake Mendota, Madison, Wisconsin,” Limnol. & Oceanogr. 21(3):365-378 (1976). [1,091 kb]

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Bortleson, G. C. and Lee, G. F., “Recent Sedimentary History of Lake Monona, Wisconsin,” Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 4:89-98 (1975). [114 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Bentley, E., and Amundson, R., “Effects of Marshes on Water Quality,” IN: Ecological Studies 10, Coupling of Land and Water Systems, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 105-127 (1975). [991 kb]

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Plumb, R. H., and Lee, G. F., “Response of Lake Superior Algae to Nutrients in Taconite Tailings,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 47(3):619-625 (1975). [140 kb]

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Sonzogni, W. C., Fitzgerald, G. P., and Lee, G. F., “Effects of Wastewater Diversion on the Lower Madison Lakes,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 47:535-542 (1975). [138 kb]

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James, D. and Lee, G. F., “A Model of Inorganic Carbon Limitation in Natural Waters,” Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 3:315-320 (1974). [54 kb]

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Kluesener, J. W., and Lee, G. F., “Nutrient Loading from a Separate Storm Sewer in Madison, Wisconsin,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 46(5):920-936 (1974). [3,138 kb]

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Sonzogni, W. and Lee, G. F., “Diversion of Waste Waters from Madison Lakes,” J. Environ. Engr. Div. ISCHIA 100:153-170 (1974). [171 kb]

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Austin, E. R. and Lee, G. F., “Nitrogen Release from Lake Sediments,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 45(5):870-879 (1973). [152 kb]

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Cowen, W. and Lee, G. F., “Leaves as a Source of Phosphorus,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 7:853-854 (1973). [284 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Eutrophication,” Transactions of the Northeast Fish and Wildlife Conference, May 1972, pp 39-60 (1973). [Also published as: Lee, G. F., “Eutrophication,” Encyclopedia of Chem. Tech. - Supplement, John Wiley & Sons, pp 315-338 (1971)] [229 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Role of Phosphorus in Eutrophication and Diffuse Source Control,” Water Res. 7:111-128 (1973). [6,785 kb]

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Sonzogni, W., and Lee, G. F., “Phosphorus in Runoff,” Letter to the Editor, Environmental Science & Technology 7(3):181 (1973). [587 kb]

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Bortleson, G. C., and Lee, G. F., “Recent Sedimentary History of Lake Mendota, Wisconsin,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 6:799-808 (1972). [1,041 kb]

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Hanson, A. M. and Lee, G. F., “Studies on the Forms of Organic Nitrogen in Domestic Waste Waters,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 43:2271-2279 (1971). [3,121 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Veith, G. D., “Effects of Thermal Discharges on the Chemical Parameters of Water Quality and Eutrophication,” Proc. International Symposium on Identification and Measurement of Environmental Pollutants, Ottawa, National Res. Council of Canada, Ottawa, pp 287-294 (1971). [4,739 kb]

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Brezonik, P. and Lee, G. F., “Denitrification as a Nitrogen Sink in Lake Mendota, Wis.,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 2:120-125 (1968). [254 kb]

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Pfeil, B. H. and Lee, G. F., “Biodegradation of Nitrilotriacetic Acid in Aerobic Systems,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 2(7):543-546 (1968). [2,066 kb]

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Kammerer, P. A., Rodel, M. G., Hughes, P. A. and Lee, G. F., “Low Level Kjeldahl Nitrogen Determination by the Technicon AutoAnalyzer,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 1:340-342 (1967). [54 kb]

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Brezonik, P. L. and Lee, G. F., “Preservation of Water Samples for Inorganic Nitrogen Analysis with Mercuric Chloride,” Air & Water Pollut. 10:549-553 (1966). [66 kb]

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Shannon, J. E. and Lee, G. F., “Hydrolysis of Condensed Phosphates in Natural Waters,” Air & Water Pollut. 10:735-756 (1966). [278 kb]

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Clesceri, N. L. and Lee, G. F., “Hydrolysis of Condensed Phosphates - II: Sterile Environment,” Air & Water Pollut. 9:743-751 (1965). [106 kb]

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Malhotra, S. K., Lee, G. F., and Rohlich, G. A., “Nutrient Removal from Secondary Effluent by Alum Flocculation and Lime Precipitation,” Air & Water Pollut. 8:487-500 (1964). [841 kb]


Evaluation & Management of Nutrient & Eutrophication

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Lee, G. F., “G. Fred Lee’s Expertise and Experience in Investigating & Managing Excessive Fertilization in Waterbodies and Developing Nutrient Criteria,” Submitted to SWRCB Nutrient Objectives Stakeholder Advisory Group (SAG), Sacramento, CA by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (2014).[35 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on ‘California Environmental Quality Act Scoping Meeting, Statewide Policy for Nutrient Control in Inland Surface Waters in California,’” Comments submitted to SWRCB, Sacramento, CA by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, November 9 (2011). [67 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on Water Environment & Technology Article, ‘Algae Wars: Is Dual Nutrient Control Necessary?’” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, July (2011). [75 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on ‘Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 131 [EPA-HQ-OW-2009-0596; FRL-XXXX-X] [RIN 2040-AF11] Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida’s Lakes and Flowing Waters,’” Submitted to US EPA Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OW-2009-0596, by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, April 7 (2010). [413 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Unreliability of US EPA-Proposed Florida Numeric Nutrient Criteria/Standards,” PowerPoint slides of Invited Presentation at Meeting of Association of American Plant Food Control Officials, Portland, Oregon, August 3 (2010). [859 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on ‘Lake Shaokatan Phosphorus Total Maximum Daily Load Report’ Prepared for the Yellow Medicine River Watershed District 2009, by David J. Schuler, Schuler Environmental Engineering, dated 12/02/2009,” Comments prepared for and submitted to Minnesota Agricultural Water Resources Coalition, by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, March 7 (2010). [111 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Review of the Characteristics of Lake Shaokatan, MN,” Report submitted to Minnesota Agricultural Water Resources Coalition, by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, March 7 (2010). [12,092 kb]

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US EPA SAB, “SAB Ecological Processes and Effects Committee 12/3/09 Draft Review of Empirical Approaches for Nutrient Criteria Derivation - Key Findings,” US EPA, Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology, Science Advisory Board Review, December 3 (2009). [27 kb]

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Hall, J. C., Letter to T. Armitage, US EPA, Washington, D.C. “Re: Comments on SAB Ecological Processes and Effects Committee Draft Report,” Hall & Associates, Washington, D. C., December 2 (2009). [196 kb]

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Jones-Lee, A., and Lee, G. F., “Information Needed to Apply the Vollenweider–OECD Eutrophication Modeling Approach to Nutrient-Related Water Quality Evaluation in Domestic Water Supply Waterbodies,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, March 16 (2009). [243 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Application of Vollenweider OECD Modeling: Limiting Nutrient Issues,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, February (2009). [17 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on ‘US EPA “Empirical Approaches for Nutrient Criteria Derivation” Prepared by US EPA, Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology, Science Advisory Board Review, Draft August 17, 2009’,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, September 4 (2009). [20 kb]

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SWRCB, “Estuarine NNE (Nutrient Numeric Endpoint) Project - NNE STRTAG Meeting Conference Call August 17, 2009,” California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Coastal Nutrient Development Program Sacramento, CA, August 17 (2009). [3,394 kb]

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SWRCB, “Estuarine Nutrient Numeric Endpoint Coastal Stakeholder Advisory Group (Coastal SAG) Meeting May 1, 2009,” PowerPoint Slides, SWRCB, Sacramento, CA, May (2009). [1,088 kb]

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Hall, J., “Request for Peer Review of New EPA Region III Approach to Developing Instream Standards for Nutrients,” Letter with attachments to Stephen Johnson, Administrator, US EPA, Washington, DC, Submitted by Hall & Associates, Washington, DC, August 21 (2008). [2018 kb] Posted with Permission of Hall & Associates, Washington, D.C.

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on Establishing a Nutrient Runoff Water Quality Management Program,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, August 3 (2008). [15 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on US EPA’s Conditional Probability Approach for Developing Phosphorus Nutrient Criteria,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, September 26 (2008). [61 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Delta Nutrient-Related Water Quality Problems,” PowerPoint Slides Presented at CALFED Science Conference, Sacramento, CA, October 24 (2008). [312 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Synopsis of CWEMF Delta Nutrient Water Quality Modeling Workshop – March 25, 2008, Sacramento, CA,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, May 15 (2008). [455 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Eutrophication, Detergent Phosphate” Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Detergent Phosphate Bans and Eutrophication,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 20(4): 330-331 (1986) (updated) IN: SCOPE Newsletter, No. 67, pp 5-6, February 2007 CEEP of Cefic Bruxelles - Belgium. (2007). [16 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “A Proposal for Assessing Algal-Available Phosphorus Loads in Runoff from Irrigated Agriculture in the Central Valley of California,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, November (2006). [98 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Assessing Algal Available Phosphorus,” Submitted for Inclusion in the Proceedings of US EPA Science Symposium: “Sources, Transport, and Fate of Nutrients in the Mississippi River and Atchafalaya River Basins,” Minneapolis, MN, November 7-9 (2006). [44 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Assessing the Water Quality Significance of N & P Compound Concentrations in Agricultural Runoff,” Invited Paper Presented at Agrochemical Division, American Chemical Society National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, September (2006). [44 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Assessing Water Quality Significance of N & P Compound Concentrations in Agricultural Runoff,” PowerPoint Slides for Invited Paper Presented at Agrochemical Division, American Chemical Society National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, September (2006). [708 kb]

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Jones-Lee, A., and Lee, G. F., “Eutrophication (Excessive Fertilization),” Water Encyclopedia: Surface and Agricultural Water, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ pp 107-114 (2005). [131 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Nutrient TMDLs and BMPs,” PowerPoint slide presentation to the UC Agricultural Extension farm advisors and researchers, Woodland, CA (2005). [335 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Interpretation of Nutrient Water Quality Data Associated with Irrigated Agricultural Ag Waiver Monitoring,” Submitted to Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board, Rancho Cordova, CA, by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, November (2005). [69 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Need for More Effective National Regulation of Aquatic Pesticide/Herbicide Use,” Comments on US EPA February 1, 2005, Federal Register “Application of Pesticides to Waters of the United States in Compliance with FIFRA,” Submitted to US EPA Washington, DC, April 4 (2005). [70 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Additional Information on Impact of Waterbody Fertilization on Fish Production,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, Published as “Water Body Fertilization: Impact on Fish Production,” SCOPE Newsletter 56:6-7, June (2004). [34 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Assessing the Water Quality Impacts of Phosphorus in Runoff from Agricultural Lands,” IN: Hall, W. L. and Robarge, W. P. (eds.), Environmental Impact of Fertilizer on Soil and Water, American Chemical Society Symposium Series 872, Oxford University Press, Cary, NC, pp. 207-219 (2004). [5,422 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Inadequate Regulation of Potential Water Quality Impacts of Aquatic Pesticides,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (2004). [28 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Comments on Draft Statewide General National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit for the Discharge of Aquatic Pesticides for Aquatic Weed and Pest Control in Waters of the United States,” Comments Submitted to the California State Water Resources Control Board by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, March (2004). [111 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Comments on the ‘Revised Draft Statewide General National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit for the Discharge of Aquatic Pesticides for Aquatic Weed Control in Waters of the United States,’ dated April 6, 2004,” Comments Submitted to the California State Water Resources Control Board by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, May (2004). [20 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Developing a Reliable Program to Monitor Water Quality Impacts of Aquatic Pesticides,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (2004). [31 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Developing Water Quality Monitoring Programs Associated with the Use of Herbicides in the Control of Aquatic Weeds,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (2003). [45 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Comments on Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report; San Francisco Estuary Invasive Spartina Project: Spartina Control Program, Prepared for the California State Coastal Conservancy and the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Dated April 2003,” Comments submitted to the BayKeeper/ DeltaKeeper by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (2003). [131 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Comments on Five Mile Slough Aquatic Weed Control Program CEQA Initial Study and Proposed Mitigated Negative Declaration, Prepared for the San Joaquin Area Flood Control Agency by Kleinschmidt Associates and the Huffman-Broadway Group, Inc., Dated May 2003,” Comments submitted to the DeltaKeeper by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (2003). [17 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Comments on Responses to the SJAFCA Five Mile Slough Aquatic Herbicide Management Response to Comments,” Submitted to the DeltaKeeper by G. Fred Lee & Associates El Macero, CA, August (2003). [74 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Review of Management Practices for Controlling the Water Quality Impacts of Potential Pollutants in Irrigated Agriculture Stormwater Runoff and Tailwater Discharges,” California Water Institute Report TP 02-05 to California Water Resources Control Board/Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board, 128 pp, California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA, December (2002). [2,954 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Managing Nutrient (N & P) Water Quality Impacts in the Central Valley, CA,” [Excerpts from: Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Review of Management Practices for Controlling the Water Quality Impacts of Potential Pollutants in Irrigated Agriculture Stormwater Runoff and Tailwater Discharges,” California Water Institute Report TP 02-05 to California Water Resources Control Board/Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board, 128 pp, California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA, December (2002). Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (2002). [1,196 kb]

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Lee, G. F. “Evaluating Nitrogen and Phosphorus Control in Nutrient TMDLs,” Stormwater, 3:10-24, January/February (2002). [1,240 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Developing Nutrient Criteria/TMDLs to Manage Excessive Fertilization of Waterbodies,” Proceedings Water Environment Federation, TMDL 2002 Conference, Phoenix, AZ, November (2002). [ 2,000 kb]

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Jones-Lee A., and Lee, G.F., “Evaluation of Inorganic and Organic Nutrient Source Impacts in Nutrient TMDLs,” Proceedings of the AWWA/WEF/CWEA Joint Residuals and Biosolids Management Conference San Diego, CA, February (2001). [204 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Assessing the Water Quality Impacts of Phosphorus in Runoff from Agricultural Lands: Expanded Discussion,” Presented in part at American Chemical Society Agro Division Symposium, “Environmental Impact of Fertilizer Products in Soil, Air and Water,” Chicago, IL, August (2001). (Published in part in Symposium Proceedings Lee and Jones-Lee, 2004.) [964 kb]

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Lee, G.F., “Comments on April 12, 2001 Draft Findings and Recommendations for the EPA Region 9 Nutrient Criteria Developed by Tetra Tech,” letter to Suesan Saucerman, US EPA Region 9 RTAG, San Francisco, CA, April 15 (2001). [76 kb]

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Lee, G.F., and Jones-Lee, A, “Strategy for Managing Waterbody Excessive Fertilization (Eutrophication) to Achieve TMDL Goals,” Presented at North American Lake Management Society National Annual Meeting Reno, NV, December (1999). [129 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on 'National Strategy for the Development of Regional Nutrient Criteria' Developed by the US EPA Office of Water, June 1998,” Comments submitted to US EPA, Washington, D.C., G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, August (1998). [1,135 kb]

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Lee, G.F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Excessive Fertilization Water Quality Problems in the Sacramento River Watershed and Delta,” G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (1998). [16k]

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Lee, G.F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Determination of Nutrient Limiting Maximum Algal Biomass in Waterbodies,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (1998). [29 kb]

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Lee, G.F., “Comments on Upper Newport Bay Nutrient TMDLs,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, January (1998). [47 kb]

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Lee, G.F., “Comments on Upper Newport Bay Nutrient TMDLs,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, January (1998). [47 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Comment on 'Impact of a Phosphate Detergent Ban on Concentrations of Phosphorus in the James River, Virginia'.” Wat. Res. 29:1425-1426 (1995). [216 kb]

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Lee, G.F., “Water Quality Modeling Issues in the Delta & San Francisco Bay,” Presented at “Toxics and Water Quality Modeling Workshop,” Bay-Delta Forum, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, August 25, 1995. [1,243 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Jones-Lee, A. and Rast, W., “Alternative Approaches for Trophic State Classification for Water Quality Management, Parts I and II: (Suitability of Existing Trophic State Classification Systems and Application of Vollenweider-OECD Eutrophication Modeling Approach),” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (1995). [810 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Jones-Lee, A., and Rast, W., “Secchi Depth as a Water Quality Parameter,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, March (1995). [372 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Evaluation and Management of Non-Point Source Pollutants in the Lake Tahoe Watershed,” Proc. 1994 National Conference on Environmental Engineering, “Critical Issues in Water and Wastewater Treatment,” American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY, pp. 516-523, July (1994) [1,198 kb]

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Jones-Lee, A., and Lee, G. F., “The Relationship between Phosphorus Load and Eutrophication Response in Lake Vanda,” Phys. Biogeochem. Processes in Antarctic Lakes, Antarctic Research Series 59:197-214 (1993). [1,249 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Role of Vehicular Exhaust NOx and Lawn-Shrubbery Fertilizers as a Cause of Water Quality Deterioration in Lake Tahoe,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA., 15pp, May (1992). [1,176 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Study Program for Development of Information for Use of Vollenweider-OECD Eutrophication Modeling in Water Quality Management for Lakes and Reservoirs,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, 22pp (1992). [223 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones, A., “Effects of Eutrophication on Fisheries,” Reviews in Aquatic Sciences 5(3-4):287-305 (1991). [11,830 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Development of Lake Water Quality Management Programs,” Report & Presentation prepared for NJ Coalition of Lake Associations by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (1989). [23 kb]

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Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “Use of Vollenweider-OECD Modeling to Evaluate Aquatic Ecosystem Functioning,” Functional Testing of Aquatic Biota for Estimating Hazards of Chemicals, ASTM STP 988, Amer. Soc. Test. & Mat., Philadelphia, pp. 17-27 (1988). [1,130 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “The North American Experience in Eutrophication Control through Phosphorus Management,” In: Proc. Int. Conf. Phosphate, Water and Quality of Life, Paris, France (1988). [428 kb]

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Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “Eutrophication Modeling for Water Quality Management: An Update of the Vollenweider-OECD Model,” World Health Organization's Water Quality Bulletin 11:67-174, 118 (1986). [6,614 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Detergent Phosphate Bans and Eutrophication,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 20(4):330-331 (1986). [29 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Algae Control in Reservoirs,” Letter to the Editor of the Journ. of the American Water Works Association 77:4 (1985). [511 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones, R. A., “Development of a Phosphorus-Eutrophication Management Strategy for Vermont: Evaluating Available Phosphorus Loads,” Technical Report N-86/01, US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, Champaign, IL, November (1985). [3,986 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., "Summary of US OECD Eutrophication Study Results and their Application to Water Quality Management,” Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 22:261-267 (1984). [84 kb]

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Rast, W., and Lee, G. F., “Nutrient Loading Estimates for Lakes,” Journ. Environ. Engr. 109(2):502-518 (1983). [1,492 kb]

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Rast, W., Jones, A., and Lee, G. F., “Predictive Capability of US OECD Phosphorus Loading-Eutrophication Response Models,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 55(7):990-1003 (1983). [1,250 kb]

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Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “Development of Water Quality Management Program for the Rawhide Electric Generating Station Cooling Impoundment: A Domestic Wastewater Reuse Project,” IN: Water Reuse in the Future, Proc. AWWA, Symposium II, AWWA, Denver, CO, pp1945-1978 (1982). [16,230 kb]

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Jones, R. A., and Lee, G. F., “Recent Advances in Assessing the Impact of Phosphorus Loads on Eutrophication-Related Water Quality,” Journ. Water Research 16:503-515 (1982). [470 kb]

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Archibald, E. M. and Lee, G. F., “Application of the OECD Eutrophication Modeling Approach to Lake Ray Hubbard, Texas,” Journ. AWWA 73:590-599 (1981). [481 kb]

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Jones, R. A., and Lee, G. F., “Impact of Phosphorus Removal at the Danbury, Connecticut Sewage Treatment plant on Water Quality in Lake Lillinonah,” Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 16:511-531 (1981). [6,675 kb]

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Jones, R. A., and Lee, G. F., “The Significance of Dredging and Dredged Material Disposal as a Source of Nitrogen and Phosphorus for Estuarine Waters,” IN: Estuaries and Nutrients, Humana Press, Clifton, NJ, pp 517-530 (1981). [838 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Application of the OECD Eutrophication Modeling Approach to Estuaries.” In: Estuaries and Nutrients, Humana Press, Clifton, NJ, pp 549-568 (1981). [10,540 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Jones, R. A. and Rast, W., “Discussion of Paper by Porcella et al., 'Index to Evaluate Lake Restoration,'” J. Environ. Engr. Div. ISCHIA 107:1334-1336 (1981). [1,267 kb]

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Newbry, B. W., Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “Assessment and Analysis of Eutrophication of Tennessee River System Impoundments,” Proc. ISCHIA Symposium on Surface Water Impoundments ISCHIA, NY, pp 413-424 (1981). [2,283 kb]

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Ortiz, J. L., Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Development of Basis for Establishing Eutrophication Management Program for Spanish Impoundments,” Proc. ISCHIA Symposium on Surface Water Impoundments, ISCHIA, NY, pp 435-446 (1981). [795 kb]

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Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “An Approach for the Evaluation of Efficacy of Wetlands-Based Phosphorus Control Programs for Eutrophication-Related Water Quality Improvement in Downstream Waterbodies,” Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 14:359-378 (1980). [5,851 kb]

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Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “Application of US OECD Eutrophication Study Results to Deep Lakes,” Proc. Conf. Eutrophication of Deep Lakes, Progress in Water Technology 12:81-88 (1980). [1,944 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Jones, R. A. and Rast, W., “Availability of Phosphorus to Phytoplankton and its Implications for Phosphorus Management Strategies,” IN: Phosphorus Management Strategies for Lakes, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (1980). [259 kb]

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Anderson, D. W. and Lee, G. F., “The Effect of Taconite Tailings on Primary Productivity in the Silver Bay Area of Western Lake Superior,” Environmental International (Pergamon Press) 2:13-17 (1979). [58 kb]

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Jones, R. A., Rast, W., and Lee, G. F., “Relationship between Summer Mean and Maximum Chlorophyll a Concentrations in Lakes,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 13:869-870, July (1979). [93 kb]

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Jones-Lee, A., and Lee, G. F., “Septic Tank Wastewater Disposal Systems as Phosphorus Sources for Surface Waters,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 51(11):2764-2775 (1979). [6,533 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Rast, W. and Jones, R. A., “Eutrophication of Water Bodies: Insights for an Age-Old Problem,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 12:900-908 (1978). [2,011 kb]

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Rast, W., and Lee, G. F., “Summary Analysis of the North American (US Portion) OECD Eutrophication Project: Nutrient Loading--Lake Response Relationships and Trophic State Indices,” EPA 600/3-78-008, US EPA Corvallis, OR (1978). [16,985 kb]

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Sridharan, N. and Lee, G. F., “Algal Nutrient Limitation in Lake Ontario and Tributary Water,” Water Res. 11:849-858 (1977). [3,119 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Bentley, E., and Amundson, R., “Effects of Marshes on Water Quality,” IN: Ecological Studies 10, Coupling of Land and Water Systems, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 105-127 (1975). [991 kb]

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Sonzogni, W. C., Fitzgerald, G. P., and Lee, G. F., “Effects of Wastewater Diversion on the Lower Madison Lakes,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 47:535-542 (1975). [138 kb]

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James, D. and Lee, G. F., “A Model of Inorganic Carbon Limitation in Natural Waters,” Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 3:315-320 (1974). [54 kb]

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Sonzogni, W. and Lee, G. F., “Diversion of Waste Waters from Madison Lakes,” J. Environ. Engr. Div. ISCHIA 100:153-170 (1974). [171 kb]

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Austin, E. R. and Lee, G. F., “Nitrogen Release from Lake Sediments,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 45(5):870-879 (1973). [152 kb]

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Cowen, W. and Lee, G. F., “Leaves as a Source of Phosphorus,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 7:853-854 (1973). [284 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Eutrophication,” Transactions of the Northeast Fish and Wildlife Conference, May 1972, pp 39-60 (1973). [Also published as: Lee, G. F., “Eutrophication,” Encyclopedia of Chem. Tech. - Supplement, John Wiley & Sons, pp 315-338 (1971)] [229 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Role of Phosphorus in Eutrophication and Diffuse Source Control,” Water Res. 7:111-128 (1973). [6,785 kb]

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Sonzogni, W., and Lee, G. F., “Phosphorus in Runoff,” Letter to the Editor, Environmental Science & Technology 7(3):181 (1973). [587 kb]

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Stauffer, R. E. and Lee, G. F., “The Role of Thermocline Migration in Regulating Algal Blooms,” Proc. Workshop Modeling the Eutrophication Process, Utah State University, pp 73-82 (1973). [3,685 kb]

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Hanson, A. M. and Lee, G. F., “Studies on the Forms of Organic Nitrogen in Domestic Waste Waters,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 43:2271-2279 (1971). [3,121 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Veith, G. D., “Effects of Thermal Discharges on the Chemical Parameters of Water Quality and Eutrophication,” Proc. International Symposium on Identification and Measurement of Environmental Pollutants, Ottawa, National Res. Council of Canada, Ottawa, pp 287-294 (1971). [4,739 kb]

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Malhotra, S. K., Lee, G. F., and Rohlich, G. A., “Nutrient Removal from Secondary Effluent by Alum Flocculation and Lime Precipitation,” Air & Water Pollut. 8:487-500 (1964). [841 kb]


Water Quality Impacts of Nutrients & Algae

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Lee, G. F., “G. Fred Lee’s Expertise and Experience in Investigating & Managing Excessive Fertilization in Waterbodies and Developing Nutrient Criteria,” Submitted to SWRCB Nutrient Objectives Stakeholder Advisory Group (SAG), Sacramento, CA by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (2014).[35 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on Water Environment & Technology Article, ‘Algae Wars: Is Dual Nutrient Control Necessary?’” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, July (2011). [75 kb]

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US EPA SAB, “SAB Ecological Processes and Effects Committee 12/3/09 Draft Review of Empirical Approaches for Nutrient Criteria Derivation - Key Findings,” US EPA, Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology, Science Advisory Board Review, December 3 (2009). [27 kb]

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Hall, J. C., Letter to T. Armitage, US EPA, Washington, D.C. “Re: Comments on SAB Ecological Processes and Effects Committee Draft Report,” Hall & Associates, Washington, D. C., December 2 (2009). [196 kb]

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Jones-Lee, A., and Lee, G. F., “Information Needed to Apply the Vollenweider–OECD Eutrophication Modeling Approach to Nutrient-Related Water Quality Evaluation in Domestic Water Supply Waterbodies,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, March 16 (2009). [243 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “G. Fred Lee Experience in Fate & Water Quality Impacts of Ammonia,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, March 16 (2009). [75 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Application of Vollenweider OECD Modeling: Limiting Nutrient Issues,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, February (2009). [17 kb]

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“Overview of Delta Nutrient Water Quality Problems: Nutrient Load – Water Quality Impact Modeling,” Agenda for Technical Workshop sponsored by California Water and Environmental Modeling Forum (CWEMF), Scheduled for March 25, 2008 in Sacramento, CA (2008). [67 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Synopsis of CWEMF Delta Nutrient Water Quality Modeling Workshop – March 25, 2008, Sacramento, CA,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, May 15 (2008). [455 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on Establishing a Nutrient Runoff Water Quality Management Program,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, August 3 (2008). [15 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Delta Nutrient-Related Water Quality Problems,” PowerPoint Slides Presented at CALFED Science Conference, Sacramento, CA, October 24 (2008). [312 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Eutrophication, Detergent Phosphate” Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Detergent Phosphate Bans and Eutrophication,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 20(4): 330-331 (1986) (updated) IN: SCOPE Newsletter, No. 67, pp 5-6, February 2007 CEEP of Cefic Bruxelles - Belgium. (2007). [16 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Role of Aquatic Plant Nutrients in Causing Sediment Oxygen Demand Part I – Origin of Rapid Sediment Oxygen Demand,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, May (2007). [108 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Role of Aquatic Plant Nutrients in Causing Sediment Oxygen Demand Part II – Sediment Oxygen Demand,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (2007). [235 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Role of Aquatic Plant Nutrients in Causing Sediment Oxygen Demand Part III – Sediment Toxicity,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (2007). [689 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “A Proposal for Assessing Algal-Available Phosphorus Loads in Runoff from Irrigated Agriculture in the Central Valley of California,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, November (2006). [98 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Assessing Algal Available Phosphorus,” Submitted for Inclusion in the Proceedings of US EPA Science Symposium: “Sources, Transport, and Fate of Nutrients in the Mississippi River and Atchafalaya River Basins,” Minneapolis, MN, November 7-9 (2006). [44 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Assessing the Water Quality Significance of N & P Compound Concentrations in Agricultural Runoff,” Invited Paper Presented at Agrochemical Division, American Chemical Society National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, September (2006). [44 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Assessing Water Quality Significance of N & P Compound Concentrations in Agricultural Runoff,” PowerPoint Slides for Invited Paper Presented at Agrochemical Division, American Chemical Society National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, September (2006). [708 kb]

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Jones-Lee, A., and Lee, G. F., “Eutrophication (Excessive Fertilization),” Water Encyclopedia: Surface and Agricultural Water, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ pp 107-114 (2005). [131 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Interpretation of Nutrient Water Quality Data Associated with Irrigated Agricultural Ag Waiver Monitoring,” Submitted to Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board, Rancho Cordova, CA, by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, November (2005). [69 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Additional Information on Impact of Waterbody Fertilization on Fish Production,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, Published as “Water Body Fertilization: Impact on Fish Production,” SCOPE Newsletter 56:6-7, June (2004). [34 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Assessing the Water Quality Impacts of Phosphorus in Runoff from Agricultural Lands,” IN: Hall, W. L. and Robarge, W. P. (eds.), Environmental Impact of Fertilizer on Soil and Water, American Chemical Society Symposium Series 872, Oxford University Press, Cary, NC, pp. 207-219 (2004). [5,422 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Comments on Five Mile Slough Aquatic Weed Control Program CEQA Initial Study and Proposed Mitigated Negative Declaration, Prepared for the San Joaquin Area Flood Control Agency by Kleinschmidt Associates and the Huffman-Broadway Group, Inc., Dated May 2003,” Comments submitted to the DeltaKeeper by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (2003). [17 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Review of Management Practices for Controlling the Water Quality Impacts of Potential Pollutants in Irrigated Agriculture Stormwater Runoff and Tailwater Discharges,” California Water Institute Report TP 02-05 to California Water Resources Control Board/Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board, 128 pp, California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA, December (2002). [2,954 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Managing Nutrient (N & P) Water Quality Impacts in the Central Valley, CA,” [Excerpts from: Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Review of Management Practices for Controlling the Water Quality Impacts of Potential Pollutants in Irrigated Agriculture Stormwater Runoff and Tailwater Discharges,” California Water Institute Report TP 02-05 to California Water Resources Control Board/Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board, 128 pp, California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA, December (2002). Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (2002). [1,196 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Developing Nutrient Criteria/TMDLs to Manage Excessive Fertilization of Waterbodies,” Proceedings Water Environment Federation, TMDL 2002 Conference, Phoenix, AZ, November (2002). [ 2,000 kb]

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Jones-Lee A., and Lee, G.F., “Evaluation of Inorganic and Organic Nutrient Source Impacts in Nutrient TMDLs,” Proceedings of the AWWA/WEF/CWEA Joint Residuals and Biosolids Management Conference San Diego, CA, February (2001). [204 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Assessing the Water Quality Impacts of Phosphorus in Runoff from Agricultural Lands: Expanded Discussion,” Presented in part at American Chemical Society Agro Division Symposium, “Environmental Impact of Fertilizer Products in Soil, Air and Water,” Chicago, IL, August (2001). (Published in part in Symposium Proceedings Lee and Jones-Lee, 2004.) [964 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Mechanisms of the Deoxygenation of the Hypolimnia of Lakes,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (1999). [115 kb]

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Lee, G.F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Excessive Fertilization Water Quality Problems in the Sacramento River Watershed and Delta,” G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (1998). [16k]

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Lee, G.F., “Comments on Upper Newport Bay Nutrient TMDLs,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, January (1998). [47 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Comment on 'Impact of a Phosphate Detergent Ban on Concentrations of Phosphorus in the James River, Virginia'.” Wat. Res. 29:1425-1426 (1995). [216 kb]

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Lee, G.F., “Water Quality Modeling Issues in the Delta & San Francisco Bay,” Presented at “Toxics and Water Quality Modeling Workshop,” Bay-Delta Forum, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, August 25, 1995. [1,243 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Jones-Lee, A. and Rast, W., “Alternative Approaches for Trophic State Classification for Water Quality Management, Parts I and II: (Suitability of Existing Trophic State Classification Systems and Application of Vollenweider-OECD Eutrophication Modeling Approach),” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (1995). [810 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Jones-Lee, A., and Rast, W., “Secchi Depth as a Water Quality Parameter,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, March (1995). [372 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Evaluation and Management of Non-Point Source Pollutants in the Lake Tahoe Watershed,” Proc. 1994 National Conference on Environmental Engineering, “Critical Issues in Water and Wastewater Treatment,” American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY, pp. 516-523, July (1994) [1,198 kb]

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Jones-Lee, A., and Lee, G. F., “The Relationship between Phosphorus Load and Eutrophication Response in Lake Vanda,” Phys. Biogeochem. Processes in Antarctic Lakes, Antarctic Research Series 59:197-214 (1993). [1,249 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Role of Vehicular Exhaust NOx and Lawn-Shrubbery Fertilizers as a Cause of Water Quality Deterioration in Lake Tahoe,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA., 15pp, May (1992). [1,176 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Study Program for Development of Information for Use of Vollenweider-OECD Eutrophication Modeling in Water Quality Management for Lakes and Reservoirs,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, 22pp (1992). [223 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones, A., “Effects of Eutrophication on Fisheries,” Reviews in Aquatic Sciences 5(3-4):287-305 (1991). [11,830 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Development of Lake Water Quality Management Programs,” Report & Presentation prepared for NJ Coalition of Lake Associations by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (1989). [23 kb]

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Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “Use of Vollenweider-OECD Modeling to Evaluate Aquatic Ecosystem Functioning,” Functional Testing of Aquatic Biota for Estimating Hazards of Chemicals, ASTM STP 988, Amer. Soc. Test. & Mat., Philadelphia, pp. 17-27 (1988). [1,130 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “The North American Experience in Eutrophication Control through Phosphorus Management,” In: Proc. Int. Conf. Phosphate, Water and Quality of Life, Paris, France (1988). [428 kb]

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Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “Eutrophication Modeling for Water Quality Management: An Update of the Vollenweider-OECD Model,” World Health Organization's Water Quality Bulletin 11:67-174, 118 (1986). [6,614 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Detergent Phosphate Bans and Eutrophication,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 20(4):330-331 (1986). [29 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Algae Control in Reservoirs,” Letter to the Editor of the Journ. of the American Water Works Association 77:4 (1985). [511 kb]

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Rast, W., and Lee, G. F., “Nutrient Loading Estimates for Lakes,” Journ. Environ. Engr. 109(2):502-518 (1983). [1,492 kb]

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Rast, W., Jones, A., and Lee, G. F., “Predictive Capability of US OECD Phosphorus Loading-Eutrophication Response Models,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 55(7):990-1003 (1983). [1,250 kb]

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Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “Development of Water Quality Management Program for the Rawhide Electric Generating Station Cooling Impoundment: A Domestic Wastewater Reuse Project,” IN: Water Reuse in the Future, Proc. AWWA, Symposium II, AWWA, Denver, CO, pp1945-1978 (1982). [16,230 kb]

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Jones, R. A., and Lee, G. F., “Recent Advances in Assessing the Impact of Phosphorus Loads on Eutrophication-Related Water Quality,” Journ. Water Research 16:503-515 (1982). [470 kb]

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Archibald, E. M. and Lee, G. F., “Application of the OECD Eutrophication Modeling Approach to Lake Ray Hubbard, Texas,” Journ. AWWA 73:590-599 (1981). [481 kb]

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Jones, R. A., and Lee, G. F., “Impact of Phosphorus Removal at the Danbury, Connecticut Sewage Treatment plant on Water Quality in Lake Lillinonah,” Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 16:511-531 (1981). [6,675 kb]

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Jones, R. A., and Lee, G. F., “The Significance of Dredging and Dredged Material Disposal as a Source of Nitrogen and Phosphorus for Estuarine Waters,” IN: Estuaries and Nutrients, Humana Press, Clifton, NJ, pp 517-530 (1981). [838 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Application of the OECD Eutrophication Modeling Approach to Estuaries.” In: Estuaries and Nutrients, Humana Press, Clifton, NJ, pp 549-568 (1981). [10,540 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Conway, C., Veith, G., Jones, R. A., and Rast, W., “Oxygen Depletion in the Hypolimnion of Lake Mendota, WI – Relationship to the Demise of the Cisco,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (1981). [15,741 kb]

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Newbry, B. W., Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “Assessment and Analysis of Eutrophication of Tennessee River System Impoundments,” Proc. ISCHIA Symposium on Surface Water Impoundments ISCHIA, NY, pp 413-424 (1981). [2,283 kb]

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Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “An Approach for the Evaluation of Efficacy of Wetlands-Based Phosphorus Control Programs for Eutrophication-Related Water Quality Improvement in Downstream Waterbodies,” Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 14:359-378 (1980). [5,851 kb]

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Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “Application of US OECD Eutrophication Study Results to Deep Lakes,” Proc. Conf. Eutrophication of Deep Lakes, Progress in Water Technology 12:81-88 (1980). [1,944 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Jones, R. A. and Rast, W., “Availability of Phosphorus to Phytoplankton and its Implications for Phosphorus Management Strategies,” IN: Phosphorus Management Strategies for Lakes, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (1980). [259 kb]

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Anderson, D. W. and Lee, G. F., “The Effect of Taconite Tailings on Primary Productivity in the Silver Bay Area of Western Lake Superior,” Environmental International (Pergamon Press) 2:13-17 (1979). [58 kb]

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Jones, R. A., Rast, W., and Lee, G. F., “Relationship between Summer Mean and Maximum Chlorophyll a Concentrations in Lakes,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 13:869-870, July (1979). [93 kb]

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Jones-Lee, A., and Lee, G. F., “Septic Tank Wastewater Disposal Systems as Phosphorus Sources for Surface Waters,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 51(11):2764-2775 (1979). [6,533 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Rast, W. and Jones, R. A., “Eutrophication of Water Bodies: Insights for an Age-Old Problem,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 12:900-908 (1978). [2,011 kb]

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Rast, W., and Lee, G. F., “Summary Analysis of the North American (US Portion) OECD Eutrophication Project: Nutrient Loading--Lake Response Relationships and Trophic State Indices,” EPA 600/3-78-008, US EPA Corvallis, OR (1978). [16,985 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Sonzogni, W., and Spear, R., “Significance of Oxic vs Anoxic Conditions for Lake Mendota Sediment Phosphorus Release,” Proc. UNESCO-SIL International Symposium on Interactions between Sediments and Fresh Water, Amsterdam, 1976, W. Junk, Purdoc, The Hague, pp. 294-306 (1977). [856 kb]

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Sridharan, N. and Lee, G. F., “Algal Nutrient Limitation in Lake Ontario and Tributary Water,” Water Res. 11:849-858 (1977). [3,119 kb]

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Cowen, W. F., and Lee, G. F., “Phosphorus Availability in Particulate Materials Transported by Urban Runoff,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 48(3):580-591 (1976). [1,958 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Bentley, E., and Amundson, R., “Effects of Marshes on Water Quality,” IN: Ecological Studies 10, Coupling of Land and Water Systems, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 105-127 (1975). [991 kb]

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Plumb, R. H., and Lee, G. F., “Response of Lake Superior Algae to Nutrients in Taconite Tailings,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 47(3):619-625 (1975). [140 kb]

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Sonzogni, W. C., Fitzgerald, G. P., and Lee, G. F., “Effects of Wastewater Diversion on the Lower Madison Lakes,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 47:535-542 (1975). [138 kb]

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Cowen, W. and Lee, G. F., “Leaves as a Source of Phosphorus,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 7:853-854 (1973). [284 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Eutrophication,” Transactions of the Northeast Fish and Wildlife Conference, May 1972, pp 39-60 (1973). [Also published as: Lee, G. F., “Eutrophication,” Encyclopedia of Chem. Tech. - Supplement, John Wiley & Sons, pp 315-338 (1971)] [229 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Role of Phosphorus in Eutrophication and Diffuse Source Control,” Water Res. 7:111-128 (1973). [6,785 kb]

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Sonzogni, W., and Lee, G. F., “Phosphorus in Runoff,” Letter to the Editor, Environmental Science & Technology 7(3):181 (1973). [587 kb]

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Stauffer, R. E. and Lee, G. F., “The Role of Thermocline Migration in Regulating Algal Blooms,” Proc. Workshop Modeling the Eutrophication Process, Utah State University, pp 73-82 (1973). [3,685 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Veith, G. D., “Effects of Thermal Discharges on the Chemical Parameters of Water Quality and Eutrophication,” Proc. International Symposium on Identification and Measurement of Environmental Pollutants, Ottawa, National Res. Council of Canada, Ottawa, pp 287-294 (1971). [4,739 kb]


Modeling of Nutrient & Eutrophication

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Lee, G. F., “G. Fred Lee’s Expertise and Experience in Investigating & Managing Excessive Fertilization in Waterbodies and Developing Nutrient Criteria,” Submitted to SWRCB Nutrient Objectives Stakeholder Advisory Group (SAG), Sacramento, CA by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (2014).[35 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on ‘California Environmental Quality Act Scoping Meeting, Statewide Policy for Nutrient Control in Inland Surface Waters in California,&’#8221; Comments submitted to SWRCB, Sacramento, CA by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, November 9 (2011). [67 kb]

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Jones-Lee, A., and Lee, G. F., “Information Needed to Apply the Vollenweider–OECD Eutrophication Modeling Approach to Nutrient-Related Water Quality Evaluation in Domestic Water Supply Waterbodies,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, March 16 (2009). [243 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Application of Vollenweider OECD Modeling: Limiting Nutrient Issues,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, February (2009). [17 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on ‘US EPA “Empirical Approaches for Nutrient Criteria Derivation” Prepared by US EPA, Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology, Science Advisory Board Review, Draft August 17, 2009’,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, September 4 (2009). [20 kb]

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SWRCB, “Estuarine NNE (Nutrient Numeric Endpoint) Project - NNE STRTAG Meeting Conference Call August 17, 2009,” California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Coastal Nutrient Development Program Sacramento, CA, August 17 (2009). [3,394 kb]

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SWRCB, “Estuarine Nutrient Numeric Endpoint Coastal Stakeholder Advisory Group (Coastal SAG) Meeting May 1, 2009,” PowerPoint Slides, SWRCB, Sacramento, CA, May (2009). [1,088 kb]

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“Overview of Delta Nutrient Water Quality Problems: Nutrient Load – Water Quality Impact Modeling,” Agenda for Technical Workshop sponsored by California Water and Environmental Modeling Forum (CWEMF), Scheduled for March 25, 2008 in Sacramento, CA (2008). [67 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Synopsis of CWEMF Delta Nutrient Water Quality Modeling Workshop – March 25, 2008, Sacramento, CA,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, May 15 (2008). [455 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on US EPA’s Conditional Probability Approach for Developing Phosphorus Nutrient Criteria,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, September 26 (2008). [61 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Delta Nutrient Water Quality Modeling Workshop — Background Information,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, September (2007). [41 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Assessing Algal Available Phosphorus,” Submitted for Inclusion in the Proceedings of US EPA Science Symposium: #8220;Sources, Transport, and Fate of Nutrients in the Mississippi River and Atchafalaya River Basins,” Minneapolis, MN, November 7-9 (2006). [44 kb]

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Jones-Lee, A., and Lee, G. F., “Eutrophication (Excessive Fertilization),” Water Encyclopedia: Surface and Agricultural Water, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ pp 107-114 (2005). [131 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Developing Nutrient Criteria/TMDLs to Manage Excessive Fertilization of Waterbodies,” Proceedings Water Environment Federation, TMDL 2002 Conference, Phoenix, AZ, November (2002). [ 2,000 kb]

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Lee, G.F., “Comments on April 12, 2001 Draft Findings and Recommendations for the EPA Region 9 Nutrient Criteria Developed by Tetra Tech,” letter to Suesan Saucerman, US EPA Region 9 RTAG, San Francisco, CA, April 15 (2001). [76 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on 'National Strategy for the Development of Regional Nutrient Criteria' Developed by the US EPA Office of Water, June 1998,” Comments submitted to US EPA, Washington, D.C., G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, August (1998). [1,135 kb]

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Lee, G.F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Determination of Nutrient Limiting Maximum Algal Biomass in Waterbodies,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (1998). [29 kb]

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Lee, G.F., “Water Quality Modeling Issues in the Delta & San Francisco Bay,” Presented at “Toxics and Water Quality Modeling Workshop,” Bay-Delta Forum, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, August 25, 1995. [1,243 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Jones-Lee, A. and Rast, W., “Alternative Approaches for Trophic State Classification for Water Quality Management, Parts I and II: (Suitability of Existing Trophic State Classification Systems and Application of Vollenweider-OECD Eutrophication Modeling Approach),” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (1995). [810 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Jones-Lee, A., and Rast, W., “Secchi Depth as a Water Quality Parameter,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, March (1995). [372 kb]

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Jones-Lee, A., and Lee, G. F., “The Relationship between Phosphorus Load and Eutrophication Response in Lake Vanda,” Phys. Biogeochem. Processes in Antarctic Lakes, Antarctic Research Series 59:197-214 (1993). [1,249 kb]

View

Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Study Program for Development of Information for Use of Vollenweider-OECD Eutrophication Modeling in Water Quality Management for Lakes and Reservoirs,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, 22pp (1992). [223 kb]

View

Lee, G. F., and Jones, A., “Effects of Eutrophication on Fisheries,” Reviews in Aquatic Sciences 5(3-4):287-305 (1991). [11,830 kb]

View

Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Development of Lake Water Quality Management Programs,” Report & Presentation prepared for NJ Coalition of Lake Associations by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (1989). [23 kb]

View

Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “Use of Vollenweider-OECD Modeling to Evaluate Aquatic Ecosystem Functioning,” Functional Testing of Aquatic Biota for Estimating Hazards of Chemicals, ASTM STP 988, Amer. Soc. Test. & Mat., Philadelphia, pp. 17-27 (1988). [1,130 kb]

View

Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “The North American Experience in Eutrophication Control through Phosphorus Management,” In: Proc. Int. Conf. Phosphate, Water and Quality of Life, Paris, France (1988). [428 kb]

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Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “Eutrophication Modeling for Water Quality Management: An Update of the Vollenweider-OECD Model,” World Health Organization's Water Quality Bulletin 11:67-174, 118 (1986). [6,614 kb]

View

Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Detergent Phosphate Bans and Eutrophication,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 20(4):330-331 (1986). [29 kb]

View

Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Algae Control in Reservoirs,” Letter to the Editor of the Journ. of the American Water Works Association 77:4 (1985). [511 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones, R. A., “Development of a Phosphorus-Eutrophication Management Strategy for Vermont: Evaluating Available Phosphorus Loads,” Technical Report N-86/01, US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, Champaign, IL, November (1985). [3,986 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Summary of US OECD Eutrophication Study Results and their Application to Water Quality Management,” Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 22:261-267 (1984). [84 kb]

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Rast, W., and Lee, G. F., “Nutrient Loading Estimates for Lakes,” Journ. Environ. Engr. 109(2):502-518 (1983). [1,492 kb]

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Rast, W., Jones, A., and Lee, G. F., “Predictive Capability of US OECD Phosphorus Loading-Eutrophication Response Models,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 55(7):990-1003 (1983). [1,250 kb]

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Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “Development of Water Quality Management Program for the Rawhide Electric Generating Station Cooling Impoundment: A Domestic Wastewater Reuse Project,” IN: Water Reuse in the Future, Proc. AWWA, Symposium II, AWWA, Denver, CO, pp1945-1978 (1982). [16,230 kb]

View

Jones, R. A., and Lee, G. F., “Recent Advances in Assessing the Impact of Phosphorus Loads on Eutrophication-Related Water Quality,” Journ. Water Research 16:503-515 (1982). [470 kb]

View

Archibald, E. M. and Lee, G. F., “Application of the OECD Eutrophication Modeling Approach to Lake Ray Hubbard, Texas,” Journ. AWWA 73:590-599 (1981). [481 kb]

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Jones, R. A., and Lee, G. F., “Impact of Phosphorus Removal at the Danbury, Connecticut Sewage Treatment plant on Water Quality in Lake Lillinonah,” Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 16:511-531 (1981). [6,675 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Application of the OECD Eutrophication Modeling Approach to Estuaries.” In: Estuaries and Nutrients, Humana Press, Clifton, NJ, pp 549-568 (1981). [10,540 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Jones, R. A. and Rast, W., “Discussion of Paper by Porcella et al., 'Index to Evaluate Lake Restoration,'” J. Environ. Engr. Div. ISCHIA 107:1334-1336 (1981). [1,267 kb]

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Newbry, B. W., Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “Assessment and Analysis of Eutrophication of Tennessee River System Impoundments,” Proc. ISCHIA Symposium on Surface Water Impoundments ISCHIA, NY, pp 413-424 (1981). [2,283 kb]

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Ortiz, J. L., Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Development of Basis for Establishing Eutrophication Management Program for Spanish Impoundments,” Proc. ISCHIA Symposium on Surface Water Impoundments, ISCHIA, NY, pp 435-446 (1981). [795 kb]

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Jones, R. A. and Lee, G. F., “Application of US OECD Eutrophication Study Results to Deep Lakes,” Proc. Conf. Eutrophication of Deep Lakes, Progress in Water Technology 12:81-88 (1980). [1,944 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Jones, R. A. and Rast, W., “Availability of Phosphorus to Phytoplankton and its Implications for Phosphorus Management Strategies,” IN: Phosphorus Management Strategies for Lakes, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (1980). [259 kb]

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Jones, R. A., Rast, W., and Lee, G. F., “Relationship between Summer Mean and Maximum Chlorophyll a Concentrations in Lakes,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 13:869-870, July (1979). [93 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Rast, W. and Jones, R. A., “Eutrophication of Water Bodies: Insights for an Age-Old Problem,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 12:900-908 (1978). [2,011 kb]

View

Rast, W., and Lee, G. F., “Summary Analysis of the North American (US Portion) OECD Eutrophication Project: Nutrient Loading--Lake Response Relationships and Trophic State Indices,” EPA 600/3-78-008, US EPA Corvallis, OR (1978). [16,985 kb]

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Sonzogni, W. C., Uttormark, P. C., and Lee, G. F., “A Phosphorus Residence Time Model: Theory and Application,” Journ. Water Res. 10:429-435 (1976). [387 kb]

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James, D. and Lee, G. F., “A Model of Inorganic Carbon Limitation in Natural Waters,” Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 3:315-320 (1974). [54 kb]


Treatment of Algae & Eutrophication

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Need for More Effective National Regulation of Aquatic Pesticide/Herbicide Use,” Comments on US EPA February 1, 2005, Federal Register “Application of Pesticides to Waters of the United States in Compliance with FIFRA,” Submitted to US EPA Washington, DC, April 4 (2005). [70 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Inadequate Regulation of Potential Water Quality Impacts of Aquatic Pesticides,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (2004). [28 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Comments on Draft Statewide General National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit for the Discharge of Aquatic Pesticides for Aquatic Weed and Pest Control in Waters of the United States,” Comments Submitted to the California State Water Resources Control Board by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, March (2004). [111 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Comments on the ‘Revised Draft Statewide General National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit for the Discharge of Aquatic Pesticides for Aquatic Weed Control in Waters of the United States,’ dated April 6, 2004,” Comments Submitted to the California State Water Resources Control Board by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, May (2004). [20 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Developing a Reliable Program to Monitor Water Quality Impacts of Aquatic Pesticides,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (2004). [31 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Developing Water Quality Monitoring Programs Associated with the Use of Herbicides in the Control of Aquatic Weeds,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (2003). [45 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Comments on Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report; San Francisco Estuary Invasive Spartina Project: Spartina Control Program, Prepared for the California State Coastal Conservancy and the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Dated April 2003,” Comments submitted to the BayKeeper/ DeltaKeeper by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (2003). [131 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Comments on Five Mile Slough Aquatic Weed Control Program CEQA Initial Study and Proposed Mitigated Negative Declaration, Prepared for the San Joaquin Area Flood Control Agency by Kleinschmidt Associates and the Huffman-Broadway Group, Inc., Dated May 2003,” Comments submitted to the DeltaKeeper by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (2003). [17 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Comments on Responses to the SJAFCA Five Mile Slough Aquatic Herbicide Management Response to Comments,” Submitted to the DeltaKeeper by G. Fred Lee & Associates El Macero, CA, August (2003). [74 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Comment on 'Impact of a Phosphate Detergent Ban on Concentrations of Phosphorus in the James River, Virginia'.” Wat. Res. 29:1425-1426 (1995). [216 kb]

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Jones-Lee, A., and Lee, G. F., “Septic Tank Wastewater Disposal Systems as Phosphorus Sources for Surface Waters,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 51(11):2764-2775 (1979). [6,533 kb]

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Sonzogni, W. C., Fitzgerald, G. P., and Lee, G. F., “Effects of Wastewater Diversion on the Lower Madison Lakes,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 47:535-542 (1975). [138 kb]

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Sonzogni, W. and Lee, G. F., “Diversion of Waste Waters from Madison Lakes,” J. Environ. Engr. Div. ISCHIA 100:153-170 (1974). [171 kb]

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Brezonik, P. and Lee, G. F., “Denitrification as a Nitrogen Sink in Lake Mendota, Wis.,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 2:120-125 (1968). [254 kb]

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Pfeil, B. H. and Lee, G. F., “Biodegradation of Nitrilotriacetic Acid in Aerobic Systems,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 2(7):543-546 (1968). [2,066 kb]

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Malhotra, S. K., Lee, G. F., and Rohlich, G. A., “Nutrient Removal from Secondary Effluent by Alum Flocculation and Lime Precipitation,” Air & Water Pollut. 8:487-500 (1964). [841 kb]


Sediment Issues Related to Nutrients & Eutrophication

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Role of Aquatic Plant Nutrients in Causing Sediment Oxygen Demand Part I – Origin of Rapid Sediment Oxygen Demand,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, May (2007). [108 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Role of Aquatic Plant Nutrients in Causing Sediment Oxygen Demand Part II – Sediment Oxygen Demand,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (2007). [235 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Role of Aquatic Plant Nutrients in Causing Sediment Oxygen Demand Part III – Sediment Toxicity,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (2007). [689 kb]

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Jones, R. A., and Lee, G. F., “The Significance of Dredging and Dredged Material Disposal as a Source of Nitrogen and Phosphorus for Estuarine Waters,” IN: Estuaries and Nutrients, Humana Press, Clifton, NJ, pp 517-530 (1981). [838 kb]

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Anderson, D. W. and Lee, G. F., “The Effect of Taconite Tailings on Primary Productivity in the Silver Bay Area of Western Lake Superior,” Environmental International (Pergamon Press) 2:13-17 (1979). [58 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Sonzogni, W., and Spear, R., “Significance of Oxic vs Anoxic Conditions for Lake Mendota Sediment Phosphorus Release,” Proc. UNESCO-SIL International Symposium on Interactions between Sediments and Fresh Water, Amsterdam, 1976, W. Junk, Purdoc, The Hague, pp. 294-306 (1977). [856 kb]

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Cowen, W. F., and Lee, G. F., “Phosphorus Availability in Particulate Materials Transported by Urban Runoff,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 48(3):580-591 (1976). [1,958 kb]

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Cowen, W. F., Sirisinha, K., and Lee, G. F., “Nitrogen Availability in Urban Runoff,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 48(2):339-345 (1976). [369 kb]

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Bortleson, G. C. and Lee, G. F., “Recent Sedimentary History of Lake Monona, Wisconsin,” Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 4:89-98 (1975). [114 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Bentley, E., and Amundson, R., “Effects of Marshes on Water Quality,” IN: Ecological Studies 10, Coupling of Land and Water Systems, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 105-127 (1975). [991 kb]

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Plumb, R. H., and Lee, G. F., “Response of Lake Superior Algae to Nutrients in Taconite Tailings,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 47(3):619-625 (1975). [140 kb]

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Austin, E. R. and Lee, G. F., “Nitrogen Release from Lake Sediments,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 45(5):870-879 (1973). [152 kb]

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Bortleson, G. C., and Lee, G. F., “Recent Sedimentary History of Lake Mendota, Wisconsin,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 6:799-808 (1972). [1,041 kb]

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Brezonik, P. and Lee, G. F., “Denitrification as a Nitrogen Sink in Lake Mendota, Wis.,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 2:120-125 (1968). [254 kb]

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Gardner, W. S., and Lee, G. F., “Oxygenation of Lake Sediments,” Air & Water Pollut. 9:553-564 (1965). [816 kb]


Aquatic Chemistry of Nutrients & Analytical Procedure Development

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Lee, G. F., “G. Fred Lee Experience in Fate & Water Quality Impacts of Ammonia,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, March 16 (2009). [75 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Role of Aquatic Plant Nutrients in Causing Sediment Oxygen Demand Part I – Origin of Rapid Sediment Oxygen Demand,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, May (2007). [108 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Role of Aquatic Plant Nutrients in Causing Sediment Oxygen Demand Part II – Sediment Oxygen Demand,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (2007). [235 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Role of Aquatic Plant Nutrients in Causing Sediment Oxygen Demand Part III – Sediment Toxicity,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (2007). [689 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Need for More Effective National Regulation of Aquatic Pesticide/Herbicide Use,” Comments on US EPA February 1, 2005, Federal Register “Application of Pesticides to Waters of the United States in Compliance with FIFRA,” Submitted to US EPA Washington, DC, April 4 (2005). [70 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Comments on Responses to the SJAFCA Five Mile Slough Aquatic Herbicide Management Response to Comments,” Submitted to the DeltaKeeper by G. Fred Lee & Associates El Macero, CA, August (2003). [74 kb]

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Lee, G.F., “Water Quality Modeling Issues in the Delta & San Francisco Bay,” Presented at “Toxics and Water Quality Modeling Workshop,” Bay-Delta Forum, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, August 25, 1995. [1,243 kb]

View

Anderson, D. W. and Lee, G. F., “The Effect of Taconite Tailings on Primary Productivity in the Silver Bay Area of Western Lake Superior,” Environmental International (Pergamon Press) 2:13-17 (1979). [58 kb]

View

Lee, G. F., Sonzogni, W., and Spear, R., “Significance of Oxic vs Anoxic Conditions for Lake Mendota Sediment Phosphorus Release,” Proc. UNESCO-SIL International Symposium on Interactions between Sediments and Fresh Water, Amsterdam, 1976, W. Junk, Purdoc, The Hague, pp. 294-306 (1977). [856 kb]

View

Bortleson, G. C. and Lee, G. F., “Recent Sedimentary History of Lake Monona, Wisconsin,” Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 4:89-98 (1975). [114 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Bentley, E., and Amundson, R., “Effects of Marshes on Water Quality,” IN: Ecological Studies 10, Coupling of Land and Water Systems, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 105-127 (1975). [991 kb]

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Plumb, R. H., and Lee, G. F., “Response of Lake Superior Algae to Nutrients in Taconite Tailings,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 47(3):619-625 (1975). [140 kb]

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Hanson, A. M. and Lee, G. F., “Studies on the Forms of Organic Nitrogen in Domestic Waste Waters,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 43:2271-2279 (1971). [3,121 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Veith, G. D., “Effects of Thermal Discharges on the Chemical Parameters of Water Quality and Eutrophication,” Proc. International Symposium on Identification and Measurement of Environmental Pollutants, Ottawa, National Res. Council of Canada, Ottawa, pp 287-294 (1971). [4,739 kb]

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Brezonik, P. and Lee, G. F., “Denitrification as a Nitrogen Sink in Lake Mendota, Wis.,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 2:120-125 (1968). [254 kb]

View

Pfeil, B. H. and Lee, G. F., “Biodegradation of Nitrilotriacetic Acid in Aerobic Systems,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 2(7):543-546 (1968). [2,066 kb]

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Kammerer, P. A., Rodel, M. G., Hughes, P. A. and Lee, G. F., “Low Level Kjeldahl Nitrogen Determination by the Technicon AutoAnalyzer,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 1:340-342 (1967). [54 kb]

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Soltero, F. V. and Lee, G. F., “Apparatus for Automatic pH Control in Algal Cultures,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 1(6):503-505 (1967). [1,100 kb]

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Brezonik, P. L. and Lee, G. F., “Preservation of Water Samples for Inorganic Nitrogen Analysis with Mercuric Chloride,” Air & Water Pollut. 10:549-553 (1966). [66 kb]

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Shannon, J. E. and Lee, G. F., “Hydrolysis of Condensed Phosphates in Natural Waters,” Air & Water Pollut. 10:735-756 (1966). [278 kb]

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Clesceri, N. L. and Lee, G. F., “Hydrolysis of Condensed Phosphates - II: Sterile Environment,” Air & Water Pollut. 9:743-751 (1965). [106 kb]

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Malhotra, S. K., Lee, G. F., and Rohlich, G. A., “Nutrient Removal from Secondary Effluent by Alum Flocculation and Lime Precipitation,” Air & Water Pollut. 8:487-500 (1964). [841 kb]


Eutrophication Processes

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US EPA SAB, “SAB Ecological Processes and Effects Committee 12/3/09 Draft Review of Empirical Approaches for Nutrient Criteria Derivation - Key Findings,” US EPA, Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology, Science Advisory Board Review, December 3 (2009). [27 kb]

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Hall, J. C., Letter to T. Armitage, US EPA, Washington, D.C. “Re: Comments on SAB Ecological Processes and Effects Committee Draft Report,” Hall & Associates, Washington, D. C., December 2 (2009). [196 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Delta Nutrient-Related Water Quality Problems,” PowerPoint Slides Presented at CALFED Science Conference, Sacramento, CA, October 24 (2008). [312 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Synopsis of CWEMF Delta Nutrient Water Quality Modeling Workshop – March 25, 2008, Sacramento, CA,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, May 15 (2008). [455 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Role of Aquatic Plant Nutrients in Causing Sediment Oxygen Demand Part I – Origin of Rapid Sediment Oxygen Demand,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, May (2007). [108 kb]

View

Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Role of Aquatic Plant Nutrients in Causing Sediment Oxygen Demand Part II – Sediment Oxygen Demand,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (2007). [235 kb]

View

Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Role of Aquatic Plant Nutrients in Causing Sediment Oxygen Demand Part III – Sediment Toxicity,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, June (2007). [689 kb]

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Jones-Lee, A., and Lee, G. F., “Eutrophication (Excessive Fertilization),” Water Encyclopedia: Surface and Agricultural Water, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ pp 107-114 (2005). [131 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Comments on Responses to the SJAFCA Five Mile Slough Aquatic Herbicide Management Response to Comments,” Submitted to the DeltaKeeper by G. Fred Lee & Associates El Macero, CA, August (2003). [74 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Mechanisms of the Deoxygenation of the Hypolimnia of Lakes,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (1999). [115 kb]

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Lee, G.F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Determination of Nutrient Limiting Maximum Algal Biomass in Waterbodies,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (1998). [29 kb]

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Lee, G.F., “Water Quality Modeling Issues in the Delta & San Francisco Bay,” Presented at “Toxics and Water Quality Modeling Workshop,” Bay-Delta Forum, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, August 25, 1995. [1,243 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Jones-Lee, A. and Rast, W., “Alternative Approaches for Trophic State Classification for Water Quality Management, Parts I and II: (Suitability of Existing Trophic State Classification Systems and Application of Vollenweider-OECD Eutrophication Modeling Approach),” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (1995). [810 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., "The North American Experience in Eutrophication Control through Phosphorus Management,” In: Proc. Int. Conf. Phosphate, Water and Quality of Life, Paris, France (1988). [428 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Conway, C., Veith, G., Jones, R. A., and Rast, W., “Oxygen Depletion in the Hypolimnion of Lake Mendota, WI – Relationship to the Demise of the Cisco,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (1981). [15,741 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Rast, W. and Jones, R. A., “Eutrophication of Water Bodies: Insights for an Age-Old Problem,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 12:900-908 (1978). [2,011 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Sonzogni, W., and Spear, R., “Significance of Oxic vs Anoxic Conditions for Lake Mendota Sediment Phosphorus Release,” Proc. UNESCO-SIL International Symposium on Interactions between Sediments and Fresh Water, Amsterdam, 1976, W. Junk, Purdoc, The Hague, pp. 294-306 (1977). [856 kb]

View

Sridharan, N. and Lee, G. F., “Algal Nutrient Limitation in Lake Ontario and Tributary Water,” Water Res. 11:849-858 (1977). [3,119 kb]

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Sonzogni, W. C., Uttormark, P. C., and Lee, G. F., “A Phosphorus Residence Time Model: Theory and Application,” Journ. Water Res. 10:429-435 (1976). [387 kb]

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Torrey, M., and Lee, G. F., “Nitrogen Fixation in Lake Mendota, Madison, Wisconsin,” Limnol. & Oceanogr. 21(3):365-378 (1976). [1,091 kb]

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Bortleson, G. C. and Lee, G. F., “Recent Sedimentary History of Lake Monona, Wisconsin,” Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 4:89-98 (1975). [114 kb]

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Lee, G. F., Bentley, E., and Amundson, R., “Effects of Marshes on Water Quality,” IN: Ecological Studies 10, Coupling of Land and Water Systems, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 105-127 (1975). [991 kb]

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James, D. and Lee, G. F., “A Model of Inorganic Carbon Limitation in Natural Waters,” Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 3:315-320 (1974). [54 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Eutrophication,” Transactions of the Northeast Fish and Wildlife Conference, May 1972, pp 39-60 (1973). [Also published as: Lee, G. F., “Eutrophication,” Encyclopedia of Chem. Tech. - Supplement, John Wiley & Sons, pp 315-338 (1971)] [229 kb]

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Stauffer, R. E. and Lee, G. F., “The Role of Thermocline Migration in Regulating Algal Blooms,” Proc. Workshop Modeling the Eutrophication Process, Utah State University, pp 73-82 (1973). [3,685 kb]

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Bortleson, G. C., and Lee, G. F., “Recent Sedimentary History of Lake Mendota, Wisconsin,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 6:799-808 (1972). [1,041 kb]

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Hanson, A. M. and Lee, G. F., “Studies on the Forms of Organic Nitrogen in Domestic Waste Waters,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 43:2271-2279 (1971). [3,121 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Veith, G. D., “Effects of Thermal Discharges on the Chemical Parameters of Water Quality and Eutrophication,” Proc. International Symposium on Identification and Measurement of Environmental Pollutants, Ottawa, National Res. Council of Canada, Ottawa, pp 287-294 (1971). [4,739 kb]

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Brezonik, P. and Lee, G. F., “Denitrification as a Nitrogen Sink in Lake Mendota, Wis.,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 2:120-125 (1968). [254 kb]


Issues of Nutrients in Agricultural & Urban Runoff

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on ‘Lake Shaokatan Phosphorus Total Maximum Daily Load Report’ Prepared for the Yellow Medicine River Watershed District 2009, by David J. Schuler, Schuler Environmental Engineering, dated 12/02/2009,” Comments prepared for and submitted to Minnesota Agricultural Water Resources Coalition, by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, March 7 (2010). [111 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Review of the Characteristics of Lake Shaokatan, MN,” Report submitted to Minnesota Agricultural Water Resources Coalition, by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, March 7 (2010). [12,092 kb]

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“Overview of Delta Nutrient Water Quality Problems: Nutrient Load – Water Quality Impact Modeling,” Agenda for Technical Workshop sponsored by California Water and Environmental Modeling Forum (CWEMF), Scheduled for March 25, 2008 in Sacramento, CA (2008). [67 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Delta Nutrient-Related Water Quality Problems,” PowerPoint Slides Presented at CALFED Science Conference, Sacramento, CA, October 24 (2008). [312 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Synopsis of CWEMF Delta Nutrient Water Quality Modeling Workshop – March 25, 2008, Sacramento, CA,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, May 15 (2008). [455 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “A Proposal for Assessing Algal-Available Phosphorus Loads in Runoff from Irrigated Agriculture in the Central Valley of California,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, November (2006). [98 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Assessing the Water Quality Significance of N & P Compound Concentrations in Agricultural Runoff,” Invited Paper Presented at Agrochemical Division, American Chemical Society National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, September (2006). [44 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Assessing Water Quality Significance of N & P Compound Concentrations in Agricultural Runoff,” PowerPoint Slides for Invited Paper Presented at Agrochemical Division, American Chemical Society National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, September (2006). [708 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Nutrient TMDLs and BMPs,” PowerPoint slide presentation to the UC Agricultural Extension farm advisors and researchers, Woodland, CA (2005). [335 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Interpretation of Nutrient Water Quality Data Associated with Irrigated Agricultural Ag Waiver Monitoring,” Submitted to Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board, Rancho Cordova, CA, by G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, November (2005). [69 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Need for More Effective National Regulation of Aquatic Pesticide/Herbicide Use,” Comments on US EPA February 1, 2005, Federal Register “Application of Pesticides to Waters of the United States in Compliance with FIFRA,” Submitted to US EPA Washington, DC, April 4 (2005). [70 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Assessing the Water Quality Impacts of Phosphorus in Runoff from Agricultural Lands,” IN: Hall, W. L. and Robarge, W. P. (eds.), Environmental Impact of Fertilizer on Soil and Water, American Chemical Society Symposium Series 872, Oxford University Press, Cary, NC, pp. 207-219 (2004). [5,422 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Assessing the Water Quality Impacts of Phosphorus in Runoff from Agricultural Lands: Expanded Discussion,” Presented in part at American Chemical Society Agro Division Symposium, “Environmental Impact of Fertilizer Products in Soil, Air and Water,” Chicago, IL, August (2001). (Published in part in Symposium Proceedings Lee and Jones-Lee, 2004.) [964 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Review of Management Practices for Controlling the Water Quality Impacts of Potential Pollutants in Irrigated Agriculture Stormwater Runoff and Tailwater Discharges,” California Water Institute Report TP 02-05 to California Water Resources Control Board/Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board, 128 pp, California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA, December (2002). [2,954 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Managing Nutrient (N & P) Water Quality Impacts in the Central Valley, CA,” [Excerpts from: Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Review of Management Practices for Controlling the Water Quality Impacts of Potential Pollutants in Irrigated Agriculture Stormwater Runoff and Tailwater Discharges,” California Water Institute Report TP 02-05 to California Water Resources Control Board/Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board, 128 pp, California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA, December (2002). Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA (2002). [1,196 kb]

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Lee, G.F., “Comments on April 12, 2001 Draft Findings and Recommendations for the EPA Region 9 Nutrient Criteria Developed by Tetra Tech,” letter to Suesan Saucerman, US EPA Region 9 RTAG, San Francisco, CA, April 15 (2001). [76 kb]

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Lee, G.F., and Jones-Lee, A, “Strategy for Managing Waterbody Excessive Fertilization (Eutrophication) to Achieve TMDL Goals,” Presented at North American Lake Management Society National Annual Meeting Reno, NV, December (1999). [129 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Comments on 'National Strategy for the Development of Regional Nutrient Criteria' Developed by the US EPA Office of Water, June 1998,” Comments submitted to US EPA, Washington, D.C., G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA, August (1998). [1,135 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones-Lee, A., “Comment on 'Impact of a Phosphate Detergent Ban on Concentrations of Phosphorus in the James River, Virginia'.” Wat. Res. 29:1425-1426 (1995). [216 kb]

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Lee, G. F., and Jones-Lee, A., “Evaluation and Management of Non-Point Source Pollutants in the Lake Tahoe Watershed,” Proc. 1994 National Conference on Environmental Engineering, “Critical Issues in Water and Wastewater Treatment,” American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY, pp. 516-523, July (1994) [1,198 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “Role of Vehicular Exhaust NOx and Lawn-Shrubbery Fertilizers as a Cause of Water Quality Deterioration in Lake Tahoe,” Report of G. Fred Lee & Associates, El Macero, CA., 15pp, May (1992). [1,176 kb]

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Lee, G. F. and Jones, R. A., “The North American Experience in Eutrophication Control through Phosphorus Management,” In: Proc. Int. Conf. Phosphate, Water and Quality of Life, Paris, France (1988). [428 kb]

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Rast, W., and Lee, G. F., “Nutrient Loading Estimates for Lakes,” Journ. Environ. Engr. 109(2):502-518 (1983). [1,492 kb]

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Jones-Lee, A., and Lee, G. F., “Septic Tank Wastewater Disposal Systems as Phosphorus Sources for Surface Waters,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 51(11):2764-2775 (1979). [6,533 kb]

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Cowen, W. F., Sirisinha, K. and Lee, G. F., “Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Lake Ontario Tributary Waters,” Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 10:343-350 (1978). [5,017 kb]

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Rast, W., and Lee, G. F., “Summary Analysis of the North American (US Portion) OECD Eutrophication Project: Nutrient Loading--Lake Response Relationships and Trophic State Indices,” EPA 600/3-78-008, US EPA Corvallis, OR (1978). [16,985 kb]

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Sridharan, N. and Lee, G. F., “Algal Nutrient Limitation in Lake Ontario and Tributary Water,” Water Res. 11:849-858 (1977). [3,119 kb]

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Cowen, W. F., and Lee, G. F., “Phosphorus Availability in Particulate Materials Transported by Urban Runoff,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 48(3):580-591 (1976). [1,958 kb]

View

Cowen, W. F., Sirisinha, K., and Lee, G. F., “Nitrogen Availability in Urban Runoff,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 48(2):339-345 (1976). [369 kb]

View

Lee, G. F., Bentley, E., and Amundson, R., “Effects of Marshes on Water Quality,” IN: Ecological Studies 10, Coupling of Land and Water Systems, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 105-127 (1975). [991 kb]

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Kluesener, J. W., and Lee, G. F., “Nutrient Loading from a Separate Storm Sewer in Madison, Wisconsin,” Journ. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 46(5):920-936 (1974). [3,138 kb]

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Cowen, W. and Lee, G. F., “Leaves as a Source of Phosphorus,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 7:853-854 (1973). [284 kb]

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Lee, G. F., “Role of Phosphorus in Eutrophication and Diffuse Source Control,” Water Res. 7:111-128 (1973). [6,785 kb]

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Sonzogni, W., and Lee, G. F., “Phosphorus in Runoff,” Letter to the Editor, Environmental Science & Technology 7(3):181 (1973). [587 kb]

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Brezonik, P. and Lee, G. F., “Denitrification as a Nitrogen Sink in Lake Mendota, Wis.,” Environ. Sci. & Technol. 2:120-125 (1968). [254 kb]

View

Gardner, W. S., and Lee, G. F., “Oxygenation of Lake Sediments,” Air & Water Pollut. 9:553-564 (1965). [816 kb]